Boiling Point of Water at Various Altitudes and Pressures

Altitude
(feet)
Barometer Reading
Atmos. Pressure
Boiling Point
()
in. Hg
mm Hg
PSIA
Feet of Water
-1000
31.0
788
15.2
35.2
213.8
-500
30.5
775
15.0
34.6
212.9
0
29.9
760
14.7
33.9
212.0
500
29.4
747
14.4
33.3
211.1
1000
28.9
734
14.2
32.8
210.2
1500
28.3
719
13.9
32.1
209.3
2000
27.8
706
13.7
31.5
208.4
2500
27.3
694
13.4
31.0
207.4
3000
26.8
681
13.2
30.4
206.5
3500
26.3
668
12.9
29.8
205.6
4000
25.8
655
12.7
29.2
204.7
4500
25.4
645
12.4
28.8
203.8
5000
24.9
633
12.2
28.2
202.9
5500
24.4
620
12.0
27.6
201.9
6000
24.0
610
11.8
27.2
201.0
6500
23.5
597
11.5
26.7
200.1
7000
23.1
587
11.3
26.2
199.2
7500
22.7
577
11.1
25.7
198.3
8000
22.2
564
10.9
25.2
197.4
8500
21.8
554
10.7
24.7
196.5
9000
21.4
544
10.5
24.3
195.5
9500
21.0
533
10.3
23.8
194.6
10000
20.6
523
10.1
23.4
193.7
15000
16.9
429
8.3
19.2
184.0

Centrifugal Pump Performance
for Water and Viscous Material



Flow Data - Nozzles
Theoretical Discharge of Nozzles in U S Gallons Per Minute
Head
Velocity
of disch
ft/sec
Diameter of nozzle in inches
psi
feet
1/16
1/8
3/16
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
11/8
11/4
13/8
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
130
140
150
175
200
250
300
23.1
34.6
46.2
57.7
69.3
80.8
92.4
103.9
115.5
127.0
138.6
150.1
161.7
173.2
184.8
196.3
207.9
219.4
230.9
242.4
254.0
265.5
277.1
300.2
323.3
346.4
404.1
461.9
577.4
692.8
38.6
47.25
54.55
61.0
66.85
72.2
77.2
81.8
86.25
90.5
94.5
98.3
102.1
105.7
109.1
112.5
115.8
119.0
122.0
125.0
128.0
130.9
133.7
139.1
144.3
149.5
161.4
172.6
193.0
211.2
0.37
0.45
0.52
0.58
0.64
0.69
0.74
0.78
0.83
0.87
0.90
0.94
0.98
1.01
1.05
1.08
1.11
1.14
1.17
1.20
1.23
1.25
1.28
1.33
1.38
1.43
1.55
1.65
1.85
2.02
1.48
1.81
2.09
2.34
2.56
2.77
2.96
3.13
3.30
3.46
3.62
3.77
3.91
4.05
4.18
4.31
4.43
4.56
4.67
4.79
4.90
5.01
5.12
5.33
5.53
5.72
6.18
6.61
7.39
8.08
3.32
4.06
4.69
5.25
5.75
6.21
6.64
7.03
7.41
7.77
8.12
8.45
8.78
9.08
9.39
9.67
9.95
10.20
10.50
10.80
11.00
11.20
11.50
12.00
12.40
12.90
13.90
14.80
16.60
18.20
5.91
7.24
8.35
9.34
10.20
11.10
11.80
12.50
13.20
13.80
14.50
15.10
15.70
16.20
16.70
17.30
17.70
18.20
18.20
19.20
19.60
20.00
20.50
21.30
22.10
22.90
24.70
26.40
29.60
32.40
13.3
16.3
18.8
21.0
23.0
24.8
26.6
28.2
29.7
31.1
32.5
33.8
35.2
36.4
37.6
38.8
39.9
41.0
42.1
43.1
44.1
45.1
46.0
48.0
49.8
51.6
55.6
59.5
66.5
72.8
23.6
28.9
33.4
37.3
40.9
44.2
47.3
50.1
52.8
55.3
57.8
60.2
62.5
64.7
66.8
68.9
70.8
72.8
74.7
76.5
78.4
80.1
81.8
85.2
88.4
91.5
98.8
106.00
118.00
129.00
36.9
45.2
52.2
58.3
63.9
69.0
73.8
78.2
82.5
86.4
90.4
94.0
97.7
101.00
104.00
108.00
111.00
114.00
117.00
120.00
122.00
125.00
128.00
133.00
138.00
143.00
154.00
165.00
185.00
202.00
53.10
65.00
75.10
84.00
92.00
99.50
106.00
113.00
119.00
125.00
130.00
136.00
141.00
146.00
150.00
155.00
160.00
164.00
168.00
172.00
176.00
180.00
184.00
192.00
199.00
206.00
222.00
238.00
266.00
291.00
72.4
88.5
102.00
114.00
125.00
135.00
145.00
153.00
162.00
169.00
177.00
184.00
191.00
198.00
205.00
211.00
217.00
223.00
229.00
234.00
240.00
245.00
251.00
261.00
271.00
280.00
302.00
323.00
362.00
396.00
94.5
116.00
134.00
149.00
164.00
177.00
188.00
200.00
211.00
221.00
231.00
241.00
250.00
259.00
267.00
276.00
284.00
292.00
299.00
306.00
314.00
320.00
327.00
341.00
354.00
366.00
395.00
423.00
473.00
517.00
120
147
169
189
207
224
239
253
267
280
293
305
317
327
338
349
359
369
378
388
397
406
414
432
448
463
500
535
598
655
148
181
209
234
256
277
296
313
330
346
362
376
391
404
418
431
443
456
467
479
490
501
512
533
553
572
618
660
739
808
179
219
253
283
309
334
357
379
399
418
438
455
473
489
505
521
536
551
565
579
593
606
619
645
668
692
747
799
894
977
 
 
 
11/2
13/4
2
21/4
21/2
23/4
3
31/2
4
41/2
5
51/2
6
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
130
140
150
175
200
250
300
23.1
34.6
46.2
57.7
69.3
80.8
92.4
103.90
115.50
127.00
138.60
150.10
161.70
173.20
184.80
196.30
207.90
219.40
230.90
242.40
254.00
265.50
277.10
300.20
323.30
346.40
404.10
461.90
577.40
692.80
38.60
47.25
54.55
61.00
66.85
72.20
77.20
81.80
86.25
90.40
94.50
98.30
102.10
105.70
109.10
112.50
115.80
119.00
122.00
125.00
128.00
130.90
133.70
139.10
144.30
149.50
161.40
172.60
193.00
211.20
213
260
301
336
368
398
425
451
475
498
521
542
563
582
602
620
638
656
672
689
705
720
736
767
795
824
890
950
1063
1163
289
354
409
458
501
541
578
613
647
678
708
737
765
792
818
844
868
892
915
937
960
980
1002
1043
1082
1120
1210
1294
1447
1582
378
463
535
598
655
708
756
801
845
886
926
964
1001
1037
1070
1103
1136
1168
1196
1226
1255
1282
1310
1365
1415
1466
1582
1691
1891
2070
479
585
676
756
828
895
957
1015
1070
1121
1172
1220
1267
1310
1354
1395
1436
1476
1512
1550
1588
1621
1659
1726
1790
1853
2000
2140
2392
2615
591
723
835
934
1023
1106
1182
1252
1320
1385
1447
1506
1565
1619
1672
1723
1773
1824
1870
1916
1961
2005
2050
2132
2212
2290
2473
2645
2955
3235
714
874
1009
1128
1236
1335
1428
1512
1595
1671
1748
1819
1888
1955
2020
2080
2140
2200
2255
2312
2366
2420
2470
2575
2650
2760
2985
3190
3570
3900
851
1041
1203
1345
1473
1591
1701
1802
1900
1991
2085
2165
2250
2330
2405
2480
2550
2625
2690
2755
2820
2885
2945
3070
3180
3295
3560
3800
4250
4650
1158
1418
1638
1830
2005
2168
2315
2455
2590
2710
2835
2950
3065
3170
3280
3375
3475
3570
3660
3750
3840
3930
4015
4175
4330
4485
4840
5175
5795
6330
1510
1850
2135
2385
2615
2825
3020
3200
3375
3540
3700
3850
4000
4135
4270
4400
4530
4655
4775
4890
5010
5120
5225
5450
5650
5850
6310
6760
7550
8260
1915
2345
2710
3025
3315
3580
3830
4055
4275
4480
4685
4875
5060
5240
5410
5575
5740
5900
6050
6200
6340
6490
6630
6900
7160
7410
8000
8550
9570
10480
2365
2890
3340
3730
4090
4415
4725
5000
5280
5530
5790
6020
6250
6475
6690
6890
7090
7290
7470
7650
7840
8010
8180
8530
8850
9150
9890
10580
11820
12940
2855
3490
4040
4510
4940
5340
5610
6050
6380
6690
6980
7270
7560
7820
8080
8320
8560
8800
9030
9260
9470
9680
9900
10300
10690
11070
11940
12770
14290
15620
3405
4165
4810
5380
5895
6370
6810
7120
7600
7970
8330
8670
9000
9320
9630
9920
10210
10500
10770
11020
11300
11550
11800
12290
12730
13200
14250
15220
17020
18610

Irrigation Data

Soil Type
Inches of water required to increase
moisture content from permanent wilting
percentage to maximum field capacity
Sandy soils
3-5"
Medium soils
6-10"
Heavy soils
12-15"

Permanent wilting percentage is the percentage of moisture at which plants commence to wilt and below which moisture should not be allowed to fall.

Maximum field capacity is the maximum percentage of moisture a soil will retain after irrigation.

Clay soils may hold as much as 40% of their dry weight in moisture, whereas sandy soils may retain only 8%. However, not all of this water is available to plants. A certain amount is held tightly by the soil particles and cannot be taken up by the plant roots. This amount can range from 2% in sandy soils to as high as 25% in clay soils. If the amount of water in the soil falls to these percentages the plants will wilt and die. Thus, the internal water level of the soil should be kept above this amount to ensure healthy and undamaged crops.

When irrigating, best results are obtained when just enough water is applied to increase the moisture content of the root zone to the maximum holding capacity of the soil. Adding more than this amount is wasteful, but too shallow an irrigation should be avoided to minimize high evaporation losses.

Light sandy soils require more frequent irrigations, but with relatively smaller amounts due to their low moisture retention. A one-inch application on sandy soil can penetrate twelve inches or more. Medium loam soils retain more moisture and so can be irrigated at greater intervals, but with larger amounts. A one-inch application on loam soil can penetrate six to ten inches. Heavy clay soils retain moisture the longest and so require even less frequent irrigations. However, water penetrates such soils very slowly; one inch of water applied slowly can penetrate four or five inches. Water should never be applied to soil faster than the soil can absorb it.

Crop
Amount of Water
to be Applied at
Each Irrigation
(inches)
Time Between
Irrigation
(days)
Pastures
2-3
14-21
Alfalfa
3-6
30-45
Root Crops
2-3
15-30
Vegetables
2-3
14-21
Berries
2-3
15-30
Orchards
4-6
30-60
Ladino Clover
2-3
14-21

The number of irrigations required will depend on the time of planting, the time of harvest, and the occurence of natural rainfall.

Peak Moisture Use for Common Irrigated Crops and Optimum Yields

Cool Climate
Moderate Climate
Hot Climate
Crop
Acre Inches
/Acre/Day
GPM/
Acre
Acre Inches
/Acre/Day
GPM/
Acre
Acre Inches
/Acre/Day
GPM/
Acre
Alfalfa
.15
2.8
.20
3.8
.30
5.7
Pasture
.12
2.3
.16
3.0
.25
4.7
Grain
.15
2.8
.20
3.8
.22
4.2
Potatoes
.10
1.9
.12
2.3
.14
2.6
Beets
.12
2.3
.15
2.8
.20
3.8
Deciduous Orchard
.15
2.8
.20
3.8
.25
4.7
Orchard with Cover
.20
3.8
.25
4.7
.30
5.7

Values given are for continuous flow per acre at 100% irrigation efficiency. Multiply values given by the following factors:

For hot dry climate
1.67
For moderate climate
1.43
For humid or cool climate
1.25

Maximum precipitation rates for overhead irrigation on level ground:

Light sandy soils: 1.5" - 0.75" per hour - 679 - 339 GPM per acre
Medium-textured soils: 0.75" - 0.50" per hour - 339 - 226 GPM per acre
Heavy-textured soils: .50" - 0.20" per hour - 226 - 90 GPM per acre

Allowable rates increase with adequate cover and decrease with land slopes.

Flow
gpm
ft3
sec
ft3
min
Number of acres covered in twelve hours pumping
1 in
deep
2 in
deep
3 in
deep
4 in
deep
6 in
deep
8 in
deep
10 in
deep
12 in
deep
20
50
100
150
225
300
400
700
900
1200
1600
3000
4500
6000
7000
8500
10000
14000
.0446
.1112
.2225
.3345
.502
.668
.891
1.560
2.008
2.675
3.565
6.68
10.03
13.36
15.61
18.95
22.25
31.15
2.675
6.68
13.37
20.05
30.05
40.01
53.40
93.50
120.40
160.50
213.50
400.50
602.00
802.00
936.00
1137.00
1337.00
1871.00
.529
1.328
2.96
3.98
5.97
7.96
10.61
18.58
23.85
31.82
42.35
79.50
119.30
159.10
185.70
225.50
265.00
371.00
.2645
.664
1.325
1.991
2.985
3.980
5.305
9.28
11.95
15.92
21.20
39.75
59.70
79.60
92.80
112.80
132.50
185.50
.1765
.4425
.883
1.328
1.990
2.655
3.535
6.18
7.96
10.61
14.15
26.50
39.75
53.00
61.90
75.20
88.30
123.70
.1324
.332
.6625
.995
1.492
1.99
2.652
4.64
5.97
7.95
10.61
19.88
29.85
39.75
46.45
56.35
66.25
92.75
.08825
.2213
.442
.664
.994
1.327
1.770
3.095
3.98
5.305
7.075
13.25
19.90
26.52
30.95
37.60
44.20
61.80
.6625
.166
.3313
.4975
.747
.995
1.328
2.32
2.975
3.975
5.305
9.94
14.93
18.89
23.20
28.19
33.15
46.35
.0529
.1328
.265
.398
.597
.796
1.061
1.858
2.385
3.182
4.235
7.95
11.93
15.91
18.57
22.55
26.50
37.10
.04415
.1105
.221
.332
.4975
.663
.884
1.548
1.99
2.65
2.535
6.625
9.95
13.26
15.47
18.79
22.10
30.95

Maximum Shock Pressure Caused by Water Hammer

Water hammer is a series of pulsations of varying magnitude within a pumped liquid. The amplitude and period depend on the velocity of the fluid, as well as on the material, size, and strength of the pipe. Shock results from these pulsations when the liquid is suddenly stopped, such as by a closing of a valve.

Water hammer takes its name from the sound that often accompanies it, a sound very much like when a pipe is struck by a hammer. However, intensity of the sound is by no means a measure of the shock pressure. Sound can be muffled by absorbers or arresters, but the shock pressure can still do damage.

To use this chart, first divide the inside diameter of the pipe by the wall thickness. Enter the chart at this value and project upward until you intersect with the curve for either cast iron or steel pipe depending on which one you are calculating for (to the left you can read the velocity of the pressure wave). Project horizontally to the right to intersect with the water speed line, then project down to read the value for the shock pressure.

 


Physical Properties of Water

Specific gravity of water at 60 = 1.00

Weight per gallon is based on 7.48052 gallons per cubic foot.

Temperature of Water
t
Degrees
Fahrenheit
Saturation Pressure
P'
PSIA
Specific Volume

Cubic Feet
Per Pound
Weight Density
p
Pounds per
Cubic Foot
Weight
Pounds Per Gallon
32 0.08859 0.016022 62.414 8.3436
40 0.12163 0.016019 62.426 8.3451
50 0.17796 0.016023 62.410 8.3430
60 0.25611 0.016033 62.371 8.3378
70 0.36292 0.016050 62.305 8.3290
80 0.50683 0.016072 62.220 8.3176
90 0.69813 0.016099 62.116 8.3037
100 0.94924 0.016130 61.996 8.2877
110 1.2750 0.016165 61.862 8.2698
120 1.6927 0.016204 61.7132 8.2498
130 2.2230 0.016247 61.550 8.2280
140 2.8892 0.016293 61.376 8.2048
150 3.7184 0.016343 61.188 8.1797
160 4.7414 0.016395 60.994 8.1537
170 5.9926 0.016451 60.787 8.1260
180 7.5110 0.016510 60.569 8.0969
190 9.340 0.016572 60.343 8.0667
200 11.526 0.016637 60.107 8.0351
210 14.123 0.016705 59.862 8.0024
212 14.696 0.016719 59.812 7.9957
220 17.186 0.016775 59.613 7.9690
240 24.968 0.016926 59.081 7.8979
260 35.427 0.017089 58.517 7.8226
280 49.200 0.017264 57.924 7.7433
300 67.005 0.01745 57.307 7.6608
350 134.604 0.01799 55.586 7.4308
400 247.259 0.01864 53.648 7.1717
450 422.55 0.01943 51.467 6.8801
500 680.86 0.02043 48.948 6.5433
550 1045.43 0.02176 45.956 6.1434
600 1543.2 0.02364 42.301 5.6548
650 2208.4 0.02674 37.397 4.9993
700 3094.3 0.03662 27.307 3.6505

Theoretical Discharge of Orifices
in US GPM

Head Velocity of
Discharge
Feet per
Second
                         
Lbs. feet
1/16
1/8
3/16
3/8
5/8
7/8
1
1 1/8
1
1 3/8
10 23.1 38.6 0.37 1.48 3.32 5.91 13.3 23.6 36.9 53.1 72.4 94.5 120 148 179
15 34.6 47.25 0.45 1.81 4.06 7.24 16.3 28.9 45.2 65.0 88.5 116. 147 181 219
20 46.2 54.55 0.52 2.09 4.69 8.35 18.8 33.4 52.2 75.1 102. 134. 169 209 253
25 57.7 61.0 0.58 2.34 5.25 9.34 21.0 37.3 58.3 84.0 114. 149. 189 234 283
30 69.3 66.85 0.64 2.56 5.75 10.2 23.0 40.9 63.9 92.0 125. 164. 207 256 309
35 80.8 72.2 0.69 2.77 6.21 11.1 24.8 44.2 69.0 99.5 135. 177. 224 277 334
40 92.4 77.2 0.74 2.96 6.64 11.8 26.6 47.3 73.8 106. 145. 189. 239 296 357
45 103.9 81.8 0.78 3.13 7.03 12.5 28.2 50.1 78.2 113. 153. 200. 253 313 379
50 115.5 86.25 0.83 3.30 7.41 13.2 29.7 52.8 82.5 119. 162. 211. 267 330 399
55 127.0 90.4 0.87 3.46 7.77 13.8 31.1 55.3 86.4 125. 169. 221. 280 346 418
60 138.6 94.5 0.90 3.62 8.12 14.5 32.5 57.8 90.4 130. 177. 231. 293 362 438
65 150.1 98.3 0.94 3.77 8.45 15.1 33.8 60.2 94.0 136. 184. 241. 305 375 455
70 161.7 102.1 0.98 3.91 8.78 15.7 35.2 62.5 97.7 141. 191. 250. 317 391 473
75 173.2 105.7 1.01 4.05 9.08 16.2 36.4 64.7 101. 146. 198. 259. 327 404 489
80 184.8 109.1 1.05 4.18 9.39 16.7 37.6 66.8 104. 150. 205. 267. 338 418 505
85 196.3 112.5 1.08 4.31 9.67 17.3 38.8 68.9 108. 155. 211. 276. 349 431 521
90 207.9 115.8 1.11 4.43 9.95 17.7 39.9 70.8 111. 160. 217. 284. 359 443 536
95 219.4 119.0 1.14 4.56 10.2 18.2 41.0 72.8 114. 164. 223. 292. 369 456 551
100 230.9 122.0 1.17 4.67 10.5 18.7 42.1 74.7 117. 168. 229. 299. 378 467 565
105 242.4 125.0 1.20 4.79 10.8 19.2 43.1 76.5 120. 172. 234. 306. 388 479 579
110 254.0 128.0 1.23 4.90 11.0 19.6 44.1 78.4 122. 176. 240. 314. 397 490 593
115 265.5 130.9 1.25 5.01 11.2 20.0 45.1 80.1 125. 180. 245. 320. 406 501 606
120 277.1 133.7 1.28 5.12 11.5 20.5 46.0 81.8 128. 184. 251. 327. 414 512 619
125 288.6 136.4 1.31 5.22 11.7 20.9 47.0 83.5 130. 188. 256. 334. 423 522 632
130 200.2 139.1 1.33 5.33 12.0 21.3 48.0 85.2 133. 192. 261. 341. 432 533 645
135 311.7 141.8 1.36 5.43 12.2 21.7 48.9 86.7 136. 195. 266. 347. 439 543 656
140 323.3 144.3 1.38 5.53 12.4 22.1 49.8 88.4 138. 199. 271. 354. 448 553 668
145 334.8 146.9 1.41 5.62 12.6 22.5 50.6 89.9 140. 202. 275. 360. 455 562 680
150 346.4 149.5 1.43 5.72 12.9 22.9 51.5 91.5 143. 206. 280. 366. 463 572 692
175 404.1 161.4 1.55 6.18 13.9 24.7 55.6 98.8 154. 222. 302. 395. 500 618 747
200 461.9 172.6 1.65 6.61 14.8 26.4 59.5 106. 165. 238. 323. 423. 535 660 799
250 577.4 193.0 1.85 7.39 16.6 29.6 66.5 118. 185. 266. 362 473. 598 739 894
300 692.8 211.2 2.02 8.08 18.2 32.4 72.8 129. 202. 291. 396. 517. 655 808 977

Theoretical Discharge of Orifices in US GPM (Continued)

Head Velocity of
Discharge
Feet per
Second
Diameter of Orifice in Inches
Lbs. feet 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 3 1/2 4 4 1/2 5 5 1/2 6
10 23.1 38.6 213 289 378 479 591 714 851 1158 1510 1915 2365 2855 3405
15 34.6 47.25 260 354 463 585 723 874 1041 1418 1850 2345 2890 3490 4165
20 46.2 54.55 301 409 535 676 835 1009 1203 1638 2135 2710 3340 4040 4819
25 57.7 61.0 336 458 598 756 934 1128 1345 1830 2385 3025 3730 4510 5380
30 69.3 66.85 368 501 655 828 1023 1236 1473 2005 2615 3315 4090 4940 5895
35 80.8 72.2 398 541 708 895 1106 1335 1591 2168 2825 3580 4415 5340 6370
40 92.4 77.2 425 578 756 957 1182 1428 1701 2315 3020 3830 4725 5710 6810
45 103.9 81.8 451 613 801 1015 1252 1512 1802 2455 3200 4055 5000 6050 7210
50 115.5 86.25 475 647 845 1070 1320 1595 1900 2590 3375 4275 5280 6380 7600
55 127.0 90.4 498 678 886 1121 1385 1671 1991 2710 3540 4480 5530 6690 7970
60 138.6 94.5 521 708 926 1172 1447 1748 2085 2835 3700 4685 5790 6980 8330
65 150.1 98.3 542 737 964 1220 1506 1819 2165 2950 3850 4875 6020 7270 8670
70 161.7 102.1 563 765 1001 1267 1565 1888 2250 3065 4000 5060 6250 7560 9000
75 173.2 105.7 582 792 1037 1310 1619 1955 2330 3170 4135 5240 6475 7820 9320
80 184.8 109.1 602 818 1070 1354 1672 2020 2405 3280 4270 5410 6690 8080 9630
85 196.3 112.5 620 844 1103 1395 1723 2080 2480 3375 4400 5575 6890 8320 9920
90 207.9 115.8 638 868 1136 1436 1773 2140 2550 3475 4530 5740 7090 8560 10210
95 219.4 119.0 565 892 1168 1476 1824 2200 2625 3570 4655 5900 7290 8800 10500
100 230.9 122.0 672 915 1196 1512 1870 2255 2690 3660 4775 6050 7470 9030 10770
105 242.4 125.0 689 937 1226 1550 1916 2312 2755 3750 4890 6200 7650 9250 11020
110 254.0 128.0 705 960 1255 1588 1961 2366 2820 3840 5010 6350 7840 9470 11300
115 265.5 130.9 720 980 1282 1621 2005 2420 2885 3930 5120 6490 8010 9680 11550
120 277.1 133.7 736 1002 1338 1690 2090 2520 3005 4090 5340 6760 8350 10100 12030
125 288.6 136.4 751 1022 1338 1690 2090 2520 3005 4090 5340 6760 8350 10100 12030
130 200.2 139.1 767 1043 1365 1726 2132 2575 3070 4175 5450 6900 8530 10300 12290
135 311.7 141.8 780 1063 1390 1759 2173 2620 3125 4250 5550 7030 8680 10400 12510
140 323.3 144.3 795 1082 1415 1790 2212 2670 3180 4330 5650 7160 8850 10600 12730
145 334.8 146.9 809 1100 1440 1820 2250 2715 3235 4410 5740 7280 8990 10880 12960
150 346.4 149.5 824 1120 1466 1853 2290 2760 3295 4485 5850 7410 9150 11070 13200
175 404.1 161.4 890 1210 1582 2000 2473 2985 3560 4840 6310 8000 9890 11940 14250
200 461.9 172.6 950 1294 1691 2140 2645 3190 3800 5175 6750 8550 10580 12770 15220
250 577.4 193.0 1063 1447 1891 2392 2955 3570 4250 5795 7550 9570 11820 14290 17020
300 692.8 211.2 1163 1582 2070 2615 3235 3900 4650 6330 8260 10480 12940 15620 18610

Note: To determine actual discharge, multiply values from table by the coefficient of the discharge.

Viscosity of Water

Temp
Absolute Viscosity Kinematic Viscosity
Centipoises Centistokes SSU ft/sec
32 1.79 1.79 33.0 0.00001931
50 1.31 1.31 31.6 0.00001410
60 1.12 1.12 31.2 0.00001217
70 0.98 0.98 30.9 0.00001059
80 0.86 0.86 30.6 0.00000930
85 0.81 0.81 30.4 0.00000869
100 0.68 0.69 30.2 0.00000739
120 0.56 0.57 30.0 0.00000609
140 0.47 0.48 29.7 0.00000514
160 0.40 0.41 29.6 0.00000442
180 0.35 0.36 29.5 0.00000385
212 0.28 0.29 29.3 0.00000319

Water Required to Feed Boilers

Boiler HP US GPM lb/hr
10 0.7 345
20 1.4 690
30 2.1 1035
40 2.8 1380
50 3.5 1725
60 4.1 2070
70 4.8 2415
80 5.5 2760
90 6.2 3105
100 6.9 2450
125 8.6 4312
150 10.4 5175
175 12.1 6037
200 13.8 6900
225 15.5 7762
250 17.2 8625
300 20.7 10350
350 24.1 12075
400 27.6 13800
450 31.1 15525
500 34.5 17250
600 41.4 20700
750 51.8 25875
1000 69.0 34500

Boiler horsepower is defined as the evaporation of 34.5 pounds of water per hour from a feed water temperature of 212F into steam at 212F or, in other terms, is equal to the evaporation of 0.069 GPM per Boiler hp. This is an irrational unit, however, it is used here for the sake of completeness and backwards-compatibility.

In selecting a boiler feed pump it should be taken into account that most boilers are operated at more than 100% of their rating. In fact, with most modern firing methods, 200%-300% is not uncommon even among the smaller boilers.

A boiler feed pump should always develop a pressure higher than the boiler pressure. The amount by which the pump pressure exceeds the boiler pressure is called the excess pressure. This excess pressure is needed to overcome the friction losses in the check valve, regulating valve, piping, and in the static elevation difference between the pump location and the water level in the boiler. The amount of excess pressure required should be calculated from the layout of the installation. For estimation purposes values of 25 lbs for 100 lb pressure boilers to 50 lbs for 300 lb pressure boilers can be used.

Water Requirements for Domestic Uses

Values given are averages only; actual consumption/use will vary with location, persons, animals, weather, and other factors.

Residence -- Rural
Each person per day, for all purposes 60 gal
Each horse, dry cow, or beef animal per day 12 gal
Each milking cow per day 35 gal
Each hog per day 4 gal
Each sheep per day 2 gal
Each 100 chickens per day 6 gal
Residence -- Urban
Drinking fountain, continuously flowing, per day 50-100 gal
Each shower 25-60 gal
To fill bathtub 35 gal
To fill sink 1-2 gal
To flush toilet 3-7 gal
To sprinkle " of water on each 1000 square feet of lawn 160 gal
Dishwasher, per load 10-20 gal
Washing machine, per load 30-50 gal
Domestic water softener regeneration cycle 50-150 gal
By Fixtures
Shower 4-6 gpm
Bathtub 4-8 gpm
Toilet 4-5 gpm
Bathroom sink 1-4 gpm
Kitchen sink 2-5 gpm
" hose and nozzle 200 gph
" hose and nozzle 360 gph
Lawn sprinkler 3-7 gpm

Water Requirements for Industrial Uses

Quantities listed on this page are those of water intake (amount pumped into an establishment) rather than actual use. Thus the ranges listed reflect differences in the use of the water as well as the processes and products. Thus even though the amount of water used in the process may be the same from one factory to another, the amount pumped into the factory can vary widely depending on local factors.

Product or Industry Unit Water Required
(gallons)
CHEMICALS
Alcohol, industrial (100 proof) gal 120
Alumina (Bayer process) ton 6300
Ammonium sulfate ton 200000
Butadiene ton 20000-660000*
Calcium carbide ton 30000
Carbon dioxide (from flue gas) ton 20000
Cottonseed oil gal 20
Gunpowder and explosives ton 200000
Hydrogen ton 660000
Oxygen, liquid 1000 ft 2000
Soap (laundry) ton 500
Soda ash (ammonium soda process) 58% ton 18000
Sodium chlorate ton 60000
Sulfiric acid (contact process) 100% ton 650-4875*
FOODS
Bread ton 500-1000
Canning 100 cases #2 cans 750-25000
Corn (wet-milling) bu. corn 140-240
Corn syrup bu corn 30-40
Gelatin (edible) ton 13200-20000
Meat:
Packing
Packing house operation

ton live animals
100 hog units

4130
55000
Milk and milk products:
Butter
Cheese
Receiving and bottling

ton
ton
ton

5000
4000
9000
Sugar:
Beet sugar
Cane sugar

ton
ton

2160
1000
PAPER AND PULP
Ground wood pulp ton dry 4000-50000*
Kraft pulp ton dry 93000
Soda pulp ton dry 85000
Sulfate pulp ton dry 70000
Sulfite pulp ton dry 70000-133000*
Paper ton 39000
Paperboard ton 15000-90000
Strawboard ton 26000
PETROLEUM
Gasoline, natural gal 20
Oil refining 100 bbl 77000
Refined products 100 bbl 15000-1500000*
SYNTHETIC FUEL
By coal hydrogenation 100 bbl 728600
From coal 100 bbl 1115000
From natural gas 100 bbl 373600
From shale 100 bbl 87300
TEXTILES
Cotton:
Bleaching
Dyeing

ton produced
ton produced

60000-80000
8000-16000
Rayon:
Cuprammonium (11% moisture)
Viscose
Weave, dye, and finish

ton yarn
ton yarn
1000 yard

90000-160000
200000
15000
Woolens ton produced 140000
MISCELLANEOUS
Cement, portland ton 750
Coal and coke:
By product coke
Washing

ton
ton

1500-3600
200
Electric power (steam-generated) kwhr 80-170*
Hospitals bed per day 135-150
Iron ore (brown) ton 1000
Laundries:
Commercial
Institutional

ton work
ton work

86000-11400
6000
Leather tanning:
Vegetable
Chrome

100 bbl raw hide
100 bbl raw hide

800
800
Rockwool ton 5000
Rubber, synthetic
Buna S
GR-S

ton
ton

631450
28000-670000*
Steel (rolled) net ton 15000-110000
Sulfur mining ton 3000

* Range from no reuse to maximum recycling
Range covers various processes or products involved

Water Requirements for Public Buildings

Building   Number of Fixtures
0-50 51-100 101-200 201-400 401-800 801-1200 Over 1200 Notes
Hotels and Clubs GPM/Fixture .65 .55 .45 .35 027 .25 .20 A B
Min Capacity, GPM 25 35 60 100 150 225 300
Max Capacity, GPM 33 55 90 140 210 300 ---
Hospitals GPM/Fixture 1.0 .80 .60 .50 .40 .40 .40 A B
Min Capacity, GPM 25 55 85 125 210 330 500
Max Capacity, GPM 50 80 120 200 320 480 ---
Apartments and
Apartment Hotels
GPM/Fixture .50 .35 .30 .28 .25 .24 .24 A
Min Capacity, GPM 16 30 40 65 120 210 300
Max Capacity, GPM 25 35 60 115 200 290 ---
Mercantile GPM/Fixture 1.3 .75 .70 .60 .55 .50 .50 A C
Min Capacity, GPM 40 70 80 150 250 460 620
Max Capacity, GPM 65 75 140 240 440 600 ---
Office GPM/Fixture 1.1 .70 .60 .50 .37 .30 .27 A C
Min Capacity, GPM 35 60 80 140 210 320 380
Max Capacity, GPM 55 70 120 200 300 360 ---
Schools GPM/Fixture 1.0 .60 .50 .40 .40 .40 .40 A
Min Capacity, GPM 20 50 70 110 180 340 500
Max Capacity, GPM 50 60 100 160 320 480 ---

Notes
A: Values are based on an equal number of men and women occupants. If the majority of occupants are women increase the capacity by 15%.
B: Where laundry is operated in connection with the building increase the capacity by 10%.
C: These values do not include water for special process work The extra amount should be determined and added to the total capacity.

Water Requirements of Swimming Pools

Holding Capacity
(gallons)
A B C D E F G H
55500 8' 9' 5' 3' 3" 15" 20' 60' 20'
80800 8' 9' 5' 3' 3" 15" 20' 75' 25'
120000 8' 9' 6" 5' 3' 3" 15" 25'' 90' 30'
155600 8' 10' 5' 3' 3" 15" 25' 105' 25'
207600 8' 10' 5' 3' 3" 15" 30' 120' 40'
254000 8' 10' 5' 3' 3" 15" 30' 135' 45'
306000 8' 10' 5' 3' 3" 15" 30' 150' 50'
422400 8' 10' 5' 3' 3" 15" 30' 180' 60'
558000 8' 10' 5' 3' 3" 15" 30' 210' 70'

 

Bathing Capacity per Day Assuming 24-Hour Operation on Basis of Refiltration

Holding
Capacity
(gallons)
8 Hours
400 Gallons
per Swimmer
10 Hours
625 Gallons
per Swimmer
12 Hours
900 Gallons
per Swimmer
16 Hours
1600 Gallons
per Swimmer
Swimmers Pump
Capacity
(gpm)
Swimmers Pump
Capacity
(gpm)
Swimmers Pump
Capacity
(gpm)
Swimmers Pump
Capacity
(gpm)
55500 418 116 214 93 124 72 53 58
80800 606 168 311 135 180 112 76 84
120000 900 250 461 200 267 167 113 125
155600 1170 324 597 260 346 216 146 162
207600 1555 432 796 346 461 288 195 216
254000 1905 530 975 423 565 353 238 264
306000 2300 638 1177 510 681 425 288 318
422400 3170 880 1623 705 950 586 397 440
558000 4180 1160 2145 930 1242 775 524 581

The period of refiltration of the pool takes into account the amount of water per bather per day, determined empirically.

The pump requirements depend up various factors comprising the head and upon the rate of refiltration and backwash of the filter. In this case, the head is comprised of total friction in the pipes leaving the pool and draining it into the filters, as well as of the back pressure at inlets, strainers, and the resistance to the filter beds. On the average, total head is usually figured between 40 and 60 feet, depending on the size of the pool in question.

In selecting the capacity of the pump, the local requirement of the minimum period of refiltration (if any) is used. In addition to the duty of recirculating, the pump must also be capable of supplying water for backwash. The flow through each filter when backwashing is four times the normal flow.

When the filter installation consists of three or more filters, and only one is backwashed at a time, then the pool circulating pump will have ample capacity for backwashing.

If a single filter is used, a separate backwash pump should be provided with a capacity approximately four times that of the circulating pump.

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