Materials of Construction Indicated by pH Value

pH Value Material of Construction
0 to 4 Corrosion Resistant Alloy Steels
4 to 6 All Bronze
6 to 8 Bronze Fitted or Standard Fitted
8 to 10 All Iron
10 to 14 Corrosion Resistant Alloys

Recommended Materials for Pumping
Various Liquids

The following tables indicate the materials most commonly used in the manufacture of pumps and pipes for the various liquids herein. However, this page is to be seen as a guide only. Temperature, concentration, purity, abrasion, and structural factors must also be considered in the selection of construction materials.

Remember also that many of the materials on this list are toxic, corrosive, or dangerous. Please excercise caution when dealing with these substances.

Explanation of Symbols Used

A -- designates an all bronze pump
B -- designates a bronze fitted pump
C -- designates an all iron pump
Summary of Material Selections and ASTM*
Standard Designations
Material Selection Corresponding National Society
Standards Designation


A48, Classes 20,25,30,35,40 & 50

Gray Iron--Six Grades
1(a) A536 A395 Ductile Cast Iron--Six Grades
2 B584 Tin Bronze & Leaded tin
Bronze--seven alloys
3 A216-WCB Carbon Steel
4 A217-C5 5% Chromium Steel
5 A743-CA15 12% Chromium Steel
6 A743-CB30 20% Chromium Steel
7 A743-CC50 28% Chromium Steel
8 A743-CF-8 19-9 Austenitic Steel
9 A743-C-8M 19-10 Molybdenum Austenitic Steel
10 A743-CN-7M 20-29 Chromium Nickel Austenitic
Steel with Copper & Molybdenum
11 A518 A series of nickel-base alloys
12 A436 Corrosion Resistant
High-silicon cast iron
13 A439 Austenitic cast iron--2 types
13(a)   Ductile Austenitic Cast Iron
14   Nickel-Copper Alloy
15   Nickel
16   Duplex stainless steel--typically
25% chromium, 5% nickel,
3% molybdenum + nitrogen

*ASTM--denotes American Society for Testing Material.

Liquid State of Liquid Symbol Specific
Acetaldehyde   C2H4O 0.78 C
Acetate Solvents       A,B,C,8,9,10,11,16
Acetone   C3H6O 0.79 B,C
Acetic Anhydride   C4H6O3 1.08 8,9,10,11,12,16
Acid, Acetic Conc. Cold C2H4O2 1.05 8,9,10,11,12,16
Acid, Acetic Dil. Cold     8,9,10,11,12,16
Acid, Acetic Conc. Boiling     9,10,11,12,16
Acid, Acetic Dil. Boiling     9,10,11,12,16
Acid, Arsenic, Ortho-   H3AsO41/2H2O 2.0-2.5 8,9,10,11,12
Acid, Benzoic   C7H5O2 1.27 8,9,10,11,16
Acid, Boric Aqueous Sol. H3BO3   A,8,9,10,11,12,16
Acid, Butyric Conc. C4H8O2 0.96 8,9,10,11,16
Acid, Carbolic Conc. (M. P. 106 F) C6H6O 1.07 C,8,9,10,11,16
Acid, Carbolic (See Phenol)     B,8,9,10,11,16
Acid, Carbonic Aqueous Sol. CO2 + H2O   4,8,16
Acid Chromic Aqueous Sol. Cr2O3 + H2O   8,9,10,11,12,16
Acid, Citric Aqueous Sol. C6H807 + H2O   8,9,10,11,12,16
Acids, Fatty (Oleic,
Palmitic, Stearic, etc.)
Acid, Formic   CH2O2 1.22 9,10,11,16
Acid, Fruit       A,8,9,10,11,14,16
Acid, Hydrochloric Coml. Conc. HCl 1.19 (38%) 11
Acid, Hydrochloric Dil. Cold     11
Acid, Hydrochloric Dil. Hot     11
Acid, Hydrocyanic   HCN 0.70 C,8,9,10,11,16
Acid, Hydrofluoric Anhydrous, with Hydrocarbon HF + HxCx   3,14
Acid, Hydrofluoric Aqueous Sol. HF   14
Acid, Hydrofluosilicic   HSiF6 1.30 14
Acid, Lactic   C3H6O3 1.25 A,8,9,10,11,12,16
Acid, Mine Water       A,C,5,8,9,10,11,16
Acid, Mixed Sulfuric-Nitric     8,9,10,11,12,16
Acid, Muriatic (See Acid, Hydrochloric)      
Acid, Naphthenic       C,5,8,9,10,11,16
Acid, Nitric Conc. Boiling HNO3 1.50 11,16
Acid, Nitric Dilute     8,9,10,11,12,16
Acid, Oxalic Cold C2H2O4.2H2O 1.65 9,10,11,12,16
Acid, Oxalic Hot C2H2O4.2H2O   10,11,12
Acid, Ortho-Phosphoric   H3PO4   9,10,11,16
Acid, Picric   C6H3N3O7 1.87 8,9,10,11,12,16
Acid, Pyrogallic   C6H6O3 1.76 8,9,10,11,16
Acid, Pyroligneous   H2SO4 1.45 A,8,9,10,11,16
Acid, Sulfuric 77% Cold     C,10,11,12
Acid, Sulfuric 65/93%>175F   1.69-1.84 11,12
Acid, Sulfuric 65/93%<175F     10,11,12
Acid, Sulfuric 10-65%     10,11,12
Acid, Sulfuric <10%     10,11,12,14
Acid, Sulfuric (Oleum) Fuming H2SO4 +  SO3   3,10,11
Acid, Sulfurous   H2SO3 1.92-1.94 8,9,10,11,16
Acid, Tannic   C14H10O9   A,3,8,9,10,11,14,16
Acid, Tartaric Aqueous Sol. C4H6O6.H2O   A,8,9,10,11,14,16
Alcohols       A,B,C,3
Alum See Aluminum Sulphate
and Potash Alum
Aluminum Sulphate Aqueous Sol. (up to 200F) Al2(SO4)3   10,11,12,14
Ammonium, Aqua   NH4OH   C,8,9,16
Ammonium Bicarbonate Aqu. Sol. NH4HCO3   C,3,5
Ammonium Chloride Aqu. Sol. NH4Cl   9,10,11,12,14,16
Ammonium Nitrate Aqu. Sol. NH4NO3   C,8,9,10,11,14,16
Ammonium Phosphate,
Aqu. Sol. (NH4)2HPO4   C,8,9,10,11,14,16
Aluminum Sulfate Aqu. Sol. (NH4)2SO4   8,9,10,11,16
Ammonium Sulfate With sulfuric acid     9,10,11,12,16
Aniline   C6H7N 1.02 B,C
Aniline Hydrochloride Aqu. Sol. C6H5NH2HC4   11,12
Asphalt Hot   0.98-1.4 C,5
Barium Chloride Aqu. Sol. BaCl2   C,8,9,10,11,16
Barium Nitrate Aqu. Sol. Ba(NO3)2   C,8,9,10,11,16
Beer       A,8,16
Beer Wort       A,8,16
Beet Juice       A,8,16
Beet Pulp       A,B,8,9,10,11,16
Benzene   C6H6 0.88  
Benzine (See Petroleum ether)      
Benzol (See Benzene)     B,C
Bichloride of Mercury (See Mercuric
Black Liquor (See Liquor,
Pulp Mill)
Bleach Solutions (See type)      
Blood       A,B
Boiler Feedwater (See Water,
Boiler Feed)
Brine, Calcium Chloride pH>8 CaCl2   C,11,13,14
pH<8   A,10,11,13,14
Brine, Calcium &
Magnesium Chlorides
Aqu. Sol.     A,10,11,13,14
Brine, Calcium &
Sodium Chloride
Aqu. Sol.     A,10,11,13,14
Brine Sodium Chloride Under 3% Salt, Cold NaCl 1.02-1.20 A,8,9,10,11,13,14,16
Under 3% Salt, Hot 9,10,11,12,14,16
Brine, Sea Water     1.03 A,B
Butane   C4H10 0.60 B,C,3
Calcium Bisulfide Paper Mill Ca(HSO)2 1.06 9,10,11,16
Calcium Chlorate Aqu. Sol. Ca(ClO3)2H2O   10,11,12
Calcium Hypochlorite   Ca(OCl)2   10,11,12
Calcium Magnesium
(See Brines)      
Cane Juice       A,B,8,13,16
Carbon Bisulfide   CS2 1.26 C
Carbonate of Soda (See Soda Ash)      
Carbon Tetrachloride Anhydrous CCl4 1.50 B,C
Carbon Tetrachloride Plus Water     A,8,16
Catsup       A,8,9,10,11,16
Caustic Potash (See Potassium
Caustic Soda (See Sodium
Cellulose Acetate       9,10,11,16
Chlorate of Lime (See Calcium Chlorate)      
Chloride of Lime (See Calcium
Chlorine Water (Depending on conc.)     9,10,11,12,16
Chlorobenzene   C6H5Cl 1.1 A,B,8,16
Chloroform   CHCl3 1.5 A,8,9,10,11,14,16
Chrome Alum Aqu. Sol. CrK(SO4).12H2O   10,11,12
Condensate (See Water, Distilled)      
Copperas, Green (See Ferrous Sulfate)      
Copper Ammonium
Aqu. Sol     C,8,9,10,11,16
Copper Chloride (Cupric) Aqu. Sol CuCl2   11,12
Copper Nitrate   Cu(NO3)2   8,9,10,11,16
Copper Sulfate,
Blue Vitriol
Aqu. Sol CuSO4   8,9,10,11,12,16
Creosote (See Oil, Creosote)      
Cresol, Meta   C7H8O 1.03 C,5,9,16
Cyanide (See Sodium Cyanide,
Potassium Cyanide)
Cyanogen In Water (CN)2Gas   C
Diphenyl   C6H5.C6H5 .99 C,3
Enamel       C
Ethanol (See Alcohols)      
Ethylene chloride
Cold C2H4Cl2 1.28 A,8,9,10,11,14,16
Ferric Chloride Aqu. Sol FeCl3   11,12
Ferric Sulphate Aqu. Sol Fe2(SO4)3   8,9,10,11,12,16
Ferrous Chloride Cold, Aqu. FeCl2   11,12
Ferrous Sulphate
(Green Copperas)
Aqu. Sol FeSO4   9,10,11,12,14,16
Formaldehyde   CH2O 1.08 A,8,9,10,11,16
Fruit Juices       A,8,9,10,11,14,16
Furfural   C5H4O2 1.16 A,C8,9,10,11,16
Gasoline     0.68-0.75 B,C
Glaubers Salt (See Sodium Sulfate)      
Glucose       A,B
Glue Hot     B,C
Glue Sizing       A
Glycerol (Glycerin)   C3H8O3 1.26 A,B,C
Green Liquor (See Liquor, Pulp Mill)      
Heptane   C7H16 0.69 B,C
Hydrogen Peroxide Aqu. Sol H2O2   8,9,10,11,16
Hydrogen Sulfide Aqu. Sol H2S   8,9,10,11,16
Hydrosulfite of Soda (See Sodium
Hyposulfite of Soda (See Sodium
Kaolin Slip Suspension in Water     C,3
Suspension in Acid     9,10,11,12,16
Kerosene (See Oil, Kerosene)      
Lard Hot     B,C
Lead Acetate
(Sugar of Lead)
Aqu. Sol Pb(C2H3O2)2.3H20   9,10,11,14,16
Lead Molten     C,3
Lime Water (Milk of Lime)   Ca(OH)2   C
Liquor-Pulp Mill:  Black       C,3,9,10,11,12,14,16
Liquor-Pulp Mill:  Green       C,3,9,10,11,12,14,16
Liquor-Pulp Mill:  White       C,3,9,10,11,12,14,16
Liquor-Pulp Mill:  Pink       C,3,9,10,11,12,14,16
Liquor-Pulp Mill:  Sulfite       9,10,11,16
Lithium Chloride Aqu. Sol. LiCl   C
Lye, Caustic (See Potassium &
Sodium Hydroxide)
Magnesium Chloride Aqu. Sol. MgCl2   10,11,12
Magnesium Sulfate
(Epsom Salts)
Aqu. Sol. MgSO4   C,8,9,10,11,16
Manganese Chloride Aqu. Sol. MnCl2.4H20   A,8,9,10,11,12,16
Manganous Sulfate Aqu. Sol. MnSO4.4H2O   A,C,8,9,10,11,16
Mash       A,B,8,16
Mercuric Chloride Very Dilute Aqu. Sol. HgCl2   9,10,11,12,16
Mercuric Chloride Coml. Conc Aqu. Sol. HgCl2   11,12
Mercuric Sulfate In Sulfuric Acid HgSO4 + H2SO4   10,11,12
Mercurous Sulfate In Sulfuric Acid Hg2SO4 + H2SO4   10,11,12
Methyl Chloride   CH3Cl 0.52 C
Methylene Chloride   CH2Cl2 1.34 C,8,16
Milk     1.03-1.04 8,16
Milk of Lime (See Lime Water)      
Mine Water (See Acid,
Mine Water)
Miscella (20% Soyabean
Oil & Solvent)
  0.75 C
Molasses       A,B
Mustard       A,8,9,10,11,12,16
Naphtha     0.78-0.88 B,C
Naphtha, Crude     0.92-0.95 B,C
Nicotine Sulfate   (C10H44N2)2H2SO4   10,11,12,14
Nitre (See Potassium
Nitre Cake (See Sodium
Nitre Ethane   C2H5NO2 1.04 B,C
Nitro Methane   CH3NO2 1.14 B,C
Oil, Coal Tar       B,C,8,9,10,11,16
Oil, Coconut     0.91 A,B,C,8,9,10,11,14,16
Oil, Creosote     1.04-1.10 B,C
Oil, Crude Cold     B,C
Hot     3
Oil, Essential       A,B,C
Oil, Fuel       B,C
Oil, Kerosene       B,C
Oil, Linseed     0.94 A,B,C,8,9,10,11,14,16
Oil, Lubricating       B,C
Oil, Mineral       B,C
Oil, Olive     0.90 B,C
Oil, Palm     0.90 A,B,C,8,9,10,11,14,16
Oil, Quenching     0.91 B,C
Oil, Rapeseed     0.92 A,8,9,10,11,14,16
Oil, Soya Bean       A,B,C,8,9,10,11,14,16
Oil, Turpentine     0.87 B,C
Paraffin Hot     B,C
Perhydrol (See Hydrogen
Peroxide of Hydrogen (See Hydrogen
Petroleum Ether       B,C
Phenol   C4H6O 1.07 C,8,9,10,11,16
Pink Liquor (See Liquor, Pulp Mill)      
Photographic Developers       8,9,10,11,16
Plating Solutions (Varied and
consult company.)
Potash Plant Liquor     A,8,9,10,11,13,14,16
Potash Alum Aqu. Sol. Al2(SO4)3K2SO4.24H2O   A,8,9,10,11,13,14,16
Potassium Bichromate Aqu. Sol. K2Cr2O7   C
Potassium Carbonate Aqu. Sol. K2CO3   C
Potassium Chlorate Aqu. Sol. KClO3   8,9,10,11,12,16
Potassium Chloride Aqu. Sol. KCl   A,8,9,10,11,14,16
Potassium Cyanide Aqu. Sol. KCN   C
Potassium Hydroxide Aqu. Sol. KOH   C,5,8,9,10,11,13,14,15,16
Potassium Nitrate Aqu. Sol. KNO3   C,5,8,9,10,11,16
Potassium Sulfate Aqu. Sol. K2SO4   A,8,9,10,11,16
Propane   C3H8 0.59 @ 48F B,C,3
Pyridine   C5H5N 0.98 C
Pyridine Sulphate       10,12
Rhidolene       B,C
Rosin (Colophony) Paper Mill     C
Sal Ammoniac (See Ammonium
Salt Lake Aqu. Sol. Na2SO4--impurities   A,8,9,10,11,12,16
Salt Water (See Brines)      
Sea Water (See Brines)      
Sewage       A,B,C,8,16
Shellac       A
Silver Nitrate Aqu. Sol. AgNO3   8,9,10,11,12,16
Slop, Brewery       A,B,C
Slop, Distillers       A,8,9,10,11,16
Soap Liquor       C,8,16
Soda Ash Cold Na2CO3   C,8,16
Hot   8,9,10,11,12,13,14,16
Sodium Bicarbonate Aqu. Sol. NaHCO3   C,8,9,10,11,13,16
Sodium Bisulfate Aqu. Sol. NaHSO4   10,11,12
Sodium Carbonate (See Soda Ash)      
Sodium Chlorate Aqu. Sol. NaClO3   8,9,10,11,12,16
Sodium Chloride (See Brines)      
Sodium Cyanide Aqu. Sol. NaCN   C
Sodium Hydroxide Aqu. Sol. NaOH   C,5,8,9,10,11,13,14,15,16
Sodium Hydrosulfite Aqu. Sol. Na2S2O4.2H2O   8,9,10,11,16
Sodium Hypochlorite   NaOCl   11,12
Sodium Hyposulfite (See Sodium
Sodium Meta Silicate       C
Sodium Nitrate Aqu. Sol. NaNO3   C,5,8,9,10,11,16
Sodium Phosphate: 
Aqu. Sol. NaH2PO4H2O   A,8,9,10,11,16
Sodium Phosphate:
Aqu. Sol. Na2HPO4 .7H2O   A,C,8,9,10,11,16
Sodium Phosphate:
Aqu. Sol. Na4P4 .2H2O   C
Sodium Phosphate:
Aqu. Sol. Na4P4O12   A,8,9,10,11,16
Sodium Phosphate:
Aqu. Sol. (NaPO3)6   8,9,10,11,16
Sodium Plumbite Aqu. Sol.     C
Sodium Sulfate Aqu. Sol. Na2SO4   A,8,9,10,11,16
Sodium Sulfide Aqu. Sol. Na2S   C,8,9,10,11,16
Sodium Sulfite Aqu. Sol. Na2SO3   A,8,9,10,11,16
SodiumThiosulfate Aqu. Sol. Na2S2O3 .5H2O   8,9,10,11,16
Stannic Chloride Aqu. Sol. SnCl4   11,12
Stannous Chloride Aqu. Sol. SnCl2   11,12
Starch   (C6H10O5)x   A,B
Strontium Nitrate Aqu. Sol. Sr(NO3)2   C,8,16
Sugar Aqu. Sol.     A,8,9,10,11,13,16
Sulfite Liquor (See Liquor, Pulp Mill)      
Sulfur In Water S   A,C,8,9,10,11,16
Sulfur Molten S   C
Sulfur Chloride Cold S2Cl2   C
Syrup (See Sugar)      
Tallow Hot   0.90 C
Tanning Liquors       A,8,9,10,11,12,14,16
Tar Hot     C,3
Tar & Ammonia In Water     C
Tetrachloride of Tin (See Stannic Chloride)      
Tetraethyl Lead   Pb(C2H5)4 1.66 B,C
Toluene (Toluol)   C7H8 0.87 B,C
Trichloroethylene   C2HCl3 1.47 A,B,C,8,16
Urine       A,8,9,10,11,16
Varnish       A,B,C,8,14,16
Vegetable Juices       A,8,9,10,11,14,16
Vinegar       A,8,9,10,11,12,16
Vitriol, Blue (See Copper Sulfate)      
Vitriol, Green (See Ferrous Sulfate)      
Vitriol, Oil of (See Acid, Sulfuric)      
Vitriol, White (See Zinc Sulfate)      

Water, Boiler Feed

Not evaporated 
  1.00 C,5
High Makeup pH<8.5     B,C,5

Low Makeup

Evaporated, any pH   1.66 4,5,8,14,16
Water, Distilled High Purity   0.87 A,8,16
Water, Distilled Condensate     A,B,5
Water, Fresh     1.00 B,C,5
Water, Mine (See Acid,
Mine Water)
Water, Salt & Sea (See Brines)      
Whiskey       A,8,16
White Liquor (See Liquor, Pulp Mill)      
White Water Paper Mill     A,B,C
Wine       A,8,16
Wood Pulp (Stock)       A,B,C
Wood Vinegar (See Acid,
Wort (See Beer Wort)      
Xylol (Xylene)   C8H10 0.87 B,C,8,9,10,11,16
Yeast       A,B,8,16
Zinc Chloride Aqu. Sol. ZnCl2   9,10,11,12,16
Zinc Sulfate Aqu. Sol. ZnSO4   A,9,10,11,16
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