Electrical Conversion Formulas

TO FIND DIRECT CURRENT
ALTERNATING CURRENT
Single Phase Three Phase
Amperes When
Horsepower (Input)
is Known
Amperes When
Kilowatts is Known
Amperes When
kva is Known
 
Kilowatts
kva  
Power Factor  
Horsepower
(Output)




















Power Factor and Efficiency when used in above formulas
should be expressed as decimals.
For 2-phase, 3-wire substitute 1.41 instead of 1.73.
For 2-phase, 4-wire substitute 2 instead of 1.73.

유량 비교 테이블
  US
gpm
Imp
gpm
US
million
gal/day
sec-ft m3/hr liters/sec barrels/min barrels/day
US gpm 1 0.8327 0.00144 0.00223 0.2271 0.0631 0.0238 34.286
Imp gpm 1.201 1 0.00173 0.002676 0.2727 0.0758 0.02859 41.176
US million gal/day 694.4 578.25 1 1.547 157.7 43.8 16.53 23810
sec-ft 448.83 373.7 0.646 1 101.9 28.32 10.686 15388
m3/hr 4.403 3.67 0.00634 0.00982 1 0.2778 0.1048 151
liters/sec 15.85 13.20 0.0228 0.0353 3.60 1 0.3773 543.3
barrels/min 42 34.97 0.0605 0.0937 9.538 2.65 1 1440
barrels/day 0.0292 0.0243 0.000042 0.000065 0.00662 0.00184 0.00069 1















International (Metric) System of Units

The International System of Units, known alternately as SI or metric,
has been adopted by the International Standards Organization.
This simplified and modernized system consists of seven basic units
and other units which are coherently derived from them; that is,
the product or quotient of any two unit quantities in the system results
in another unit quantity.

Base and Supplementary Units

Quantity Unit Symbol
Length meter m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Electric current ampere A
Thermodynamic temperature Kelvin K
Luminous intensity candela cd
Molecular substance mole mol
Plane angle radian rad
Solid angle steradian sr
















SI Units and Conversion Factors

To Convert From To Multiply By

ACCELERATION

feet per second per second centimeters per second per second
meters per second per second
30.480
0.30480
free fall (standard) meters per second per second 9.8067
kilometers per hour per second centimeters per second per second
feet per second per second
meters per second squared
27.778
0.9113
0.27778

ANGULAR

circumferences radians 6.283
degrees grade
radians
1.111
0.017453
degrees per second radians per second
revolutions per minute
revolutions per second
0.017453
0.16667
0.0027778
minutes radians 0.002909
radians degrees (angular) 57.296
radians per second degrees per second (angular)
revolutions per minute
57.296
9.549
revolutions per minute degrees per second
radians per second
6
0.01472
AREA
acres square feet
square meters
hectares
43560
4046.9
0.40469
circular mils square inches 0.000007854
hectares acres
square feet
square meters
2.4710
107639
10000
square centimeters square inches 0.1550
square feet acres
square meters
0.000022956
0.092903
square inches square centimeters 6.4516
square kilometers acres
square miles
247.10
0.38610
square meters acres
square feet
0.00024710
10.764
square miles acres
square kilometers
640
2.590
square yards acres
square meters
0.00020661
0.83613

CANDLEPOWER

foot candles lumens per square meter 10.764
CAPACITY, DISPLACEMENT
cubic inches per revolution liters per revolution
milliliters per revolution
0.01639
16.39

DENSITY, MASS/VOLUME

grams per cubic centimeter kilograms per cubic meter
pounds per cubic inch
pounds per cubic foot
0.001
0.03613
62.427
pounds-mass per cubic foot kilograms per cubic meter 16.018
pounds per cubic foot grams per cubic centimeter
kilograms per cubic meter
pounds per cubic inch
0.016018
16.018
0.0005787
pounds per cubic inch grams per cubic centimeter
kilograms per cubic meter
newtons per meter
27.68
27.680
1728
ENERGY AND WORK
British thermal units joules 1055
British thermal units per second watts 1.055
British thermal units per minute horsepower
watts
0.02358
17.58
British thermal units per hour watts 0.2931
calories British thermal units
foot-pounds
joules
kilogram-meters
watt-hours
0.0039683
3.088
4.1868
0.4265
0.001163
ergs joules 0.0000001
foot-pounds-force British thermal units
calories
horsepower hours
joules
kilocalories
kilogram-force meters
kilowatt hours
0.001285
0.3238
0.0000005050
1.3558
0.0003238
0.13825
0.0000003766
horsepower British thermal units per minute
foot-pounds-force per minute
foot-pounds-force per second
kilocalories per minute
kilowatts
horsepower (metric)
watts
42.43
33000
550
10.69
0.7457
1.0139
745.7
horsepower-boiler British thermal units per horse
kilowatts
pounds of water evaporated per hour at 212℉
33479
9.8095
34.5
horsepower hours British thermal units
foot-pounds-force
joules
kilocalories
kilogram-force meters
kilowatt hours
2.545
1980000
2684500
641.5
273200
0.7457
joules British thermal units
calories
foot-pounds-force
watt-hours
0.0009484
0.2390
0.73756
0.00027778
kilowatts British thermal units per minute
foot-pounds-force per minute
foot-pounds-force per second
horsepower
kilocalories per minute
56.92
44254
737.6
1.3410
14.34
kilowatt hours British thermal units
foot-pounds-force
horsepower hours
joules
kilocalories
kilograms-force meters
3413
2655000
1.3410
3.600000
860
367100
pounds-force kilograms-force
newtons
0.45359
4.4482
tons of refrigeration British thermal units per hour
British thermal units per 24 hours
12000
288000
watts British thermal units per minute
foot-pounds-force per second
foot-pounds-force per minute
horsepower
joules per second
kilocalories per minute
0.05691
0.73756
44.254
0.0013410
1.0
0.014340
watt-hours British thermal units
foot-pounds-force
horsepower hours
joules
kilocalories
kilograms-force-meters
3.413
2665
0.0013410
3600
0.8604
367.10
There are several definitions of the Btu, and the values of applicable and/or equivalent factors
may vary slightly depending on the definition used. For this reason, three or four significant figures
are given on this page, and in most cases provide a value near to most definitions of the Btu.
However, as always in making calculations of high accuracy, one should reference the appropriate
lists and handbooks of standards.

ENERGY/AREA TIME

Btu/cubic feet second watts per square meter 11348
Btu/cubic feet hour watts per square meter 3.1525
FLOW RATE MASS
pounds per minute kilograms per minute 0.4536

FLOW RATE VOLUME

cubic feet per minute cubic centimeters per second
cubic meters per second
cubic meters per hour
liters per second
gallons (US) per second
pounds of water per minute (at 68캟)
471.9
0.0004719
1.699
0.4719
0.2247
62.32
cubic feet per second cubic meters per second
cubic meters per minute
cubic meters per hour
gallons (US) per minute
gallons (imp) per hour
liters
0.028317
1.699
101.9
448.8
646315
28.32
cubic meters per hour cubic meters per minute
cubic meters per second
gallons (US) per minute
liters per second
0.016667
0.00027778
4.4033
0.27778
cubic meters per second cubic meters per hour
gallons (US) per minute
3600
15850
gallons (US) per minute cubic meters per second
cubic meters per minute
cubic meters per hour
cubic feet per second
cubic feet per hour
liters per second
0.000063090
0.0037854
0.2771
0.002228
8.021
0.06309
liters per minute cubic feet per second
liters per second
gallons (US) per second
gallons (US) per minute
gallons (imp) per minute
0.0005885
0.01667
0.004403
0.26418
0.003666
liters per second cubic meters per second
cubic meters per minute
cubic meters per hour
liters per minute
gallons (US) per minute
gallons (imp) per minute
0.001
0.06
3.600
60
15.85
13.20
pounds of water per minute at 60캟 cubic centimeters per second
cubic feet per second
cubic meters per minute
kilograms per second
7.5667
0.0002675
0.00045398
0.0075599
standard cubic feet per minute cubic meters per hour at STP
liters per second at STP
1.6957
0.47103
stokes square feet per second
square meters per second
0.001076
0.0001
tons (short) of water per 24 hours at 60캟 cubic feet per hour
cubic meters per hour
gallons (US) per minute
pounds of water per hour
1.338
0.03789
0.1668
83.333
FORCE
dynes newtons 0.00001
grams-force newtons 0.0098066
kilograms-force newtons
pounds-force
9.8066
2.2046
kiloponds newtons
kilograms-force
pounds-force
poundals
kips
9.807
1
2.2046
70.932
0.002205
kips newtons
kilograms-force
pounds-force
poundal
kilopond
4448
453.6
1000
32174
453.6
grams-force per centimeter newtons per meter
pounds-force per inch
98.07
0.005600
kilograms-force per meter newtons
pounds-force per foot
9.8066
0.6721
newtons dynes
kilograms-force
poundals
pounds-force
100000
0.10197
7.2330
0.2248
poundals newtons 0.13826
pounds-force newtons 4.448

LENGTH

centimeters inches 0.3937
fathoms feet
meters
6
1.8288
feet centimeters
inches
meters
yards
30.480
12
0.30480
0.3333
inches centimeters
meters
millimeters
micrometers
2.540
0.02540
25.40
25.4
kilometers feet
miles
3280.8
0.62137
meters feet
inches
yards
3.2808
39.370
1.0936
micrometers meters 0.000001
millimeters inches 0.039370
mills millimeters 0.0254
miles feet
kilometers
meters
yards
5280
1.6093
1609.3
1760
statute miles kilometers 1.609
yards meters 0.91440
MASS/WEIGHT
drams (avoir) grains
grams
ounces
27.344
1.7718
0.0625
grains grams
ounces (avoir)
0.0648
0.0022857
grams grains
ounces (avoir)
pounds (avoir)
15.432
0.035274
0.0022046
kilograms pounds
tons (short)
2.2046
0.0011023
metric tons (tonnes) kilograms
pounds
1000
2204.6
ounces (avoir) drams (avoir)
grains
grams
kilograms
pounds-avoir
tons (long)
metric tons
16
437.5
28.3495
0.028350
0.06250
0.00002790
0.000028350
pounds (avoir) drams (avoir)
grains
grams
kilograms
ounces (avoir)
metric tons
tons (long)
tons (short)
256
7000
453.59
0.45359
16
0.00045359
0.00044643
0.0005
tons (long) kilograms
metric tons
pounds-avoir
tons (short)
1016.0
1.0160
2240
1.120
tons (short) kilograms
pounds-avoir
tons (long)
metric tons
907.18
2000
0.89286
0.9072
short ton metric ton/tonne 0.9072
POWER
Btu/hour watt 0.2931
Btu/second watt 1055
Horsepower kilowatt 0.746
PRESSURE AND STRESS
atmosphere bars
centimeters of mercury at 32℉
feet of water at 68F
inches of mercury at 32℉
kilograms-force per square centimeter
kilograms-force per square meter
kilopascals
pounds-force per square inch
tons-force (short) per square foot
torr
1.01325
76.0
33.96
29.921
1.0332
103322
101.325
14.696
1.0581
760
bars kilopascals 100
centimeters of mercury atmospheres
bars
feet of water at 68℉
inches of water at 68℉
kilograms-force per square centimeter
pounds-force per square inch
torr
0.013158
0.01333
0.4468
5.362
0.19337
27.85
10
feet of water (at 68캟) atmospheres
bars
inches of mercury (at 0℃)
kilograms-force per square centimeter
kilopascals
pounds-force per square inch
pounds-force per square foot
0.02945
0.02984
0.8811
0.03042
2.984
0.4328
62.32
inches of mercury at 0캜 atmospheres (standard)
bars
feet of water at 68℉
inches of water at 68℉
kilograms-force per square centimeter
kilograms-force per square meter
kilopascals
millimeters of mercury
pounds-force per square foot
pounds-force per square inch
0.00342
0.033864
1.135
13.62
0.034532
345.32
3.3864
25.40
70.73
0.4912
inches of water at 68캟 atmosphere
bars
inches of mercury
kilograms-force per square centimeter
kilopascals
ounces-force per square inch
pounds-force per square foot
pounds-force per square inch
0.002454
0.002487
0.07342
0.002535
0.2487
0.5770
5.193
0.03606
kilograms-force per square centimeter atmospheres
bars
feet of water at 68℉
inches of mercury at 0℃
kilopascals
pounds-force per square foot
pounds-force per square inch
0.9678
0.98066
32.87
28.96
98.066
2048
14.223
kilograms-force per square millimeter kilograms-force per square meter
megapascals
1000000
9.8066
kilograms per square meter pascals 9.807
kilopascals dynes per square centimeter
feet of water at 68℉
inches of mercury at 32℉
inches of water at 68℉
kilograms-force per square centimeter
pascals
pounds-force per square inch
10000
0.3351
0.2953
4.021
0.010197
1000
0.1450
kips per square inch kilopascals
kilograms-force per square centimeter
bars
pounds per square inch
6894.8
70.307
68.94
1000
megapascals kilograms-force per square millimeter
kilograms-force per square centimeter
kilopascals
pascals
pounds-force per square inch
0.10197
10.197
1000
1000000
145.0
millibars pascals 100
millimeters of mercury at 0캜 bars
feet of water at 68℉
inches of mercury
inches of water at 68℉
kilograms per square centimeter
pascals
pounds per square inch
0.0013332
0.004680
0.03937
0.53616
0.0013595
133.32
0.0193368
ounces-force per square inch grams-force per square centimeter
pascals
pounds-force per square inch
4.395
43.1
0.06250
pascals bars
dynes per square centimeter
grams-force per square centimeter
kilograms-force per square centimeter
kilopascals
newtons per square meter
pounds-force per square inch
0.00001
10.0
0.010197
0.000010197
0.001
1.0
0.0001450
poise centipoises
pascal-seconds
pound-force-seconds per square foot
pounds per foot-second
100
0.1000
0.0020886
0.06721
pounds-force per square foot feet of water at 68℉
kilograms-force per square centimeter
kilopascals
pascals
pounds-force per square inch
0.01605
0.0004882
0.0047880
47.880
0.0069444
pounds-force per square inch atmospheres
feet of water at 68℉
inches of water at 68℉
inches of mercury at 0℃
kilograms force per square centimeter
kilopascals
0.06805
2.311
27.73
2.036
0.07031
6.8948
pounds per square foot kilograms per square meter 4.8824
pounds per square inch pascals
kilopascals
megapascals
6895
6.895
0.006895
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
Btu . inch . hour . feet2 . watt per meter2 0.1442
TORQUE: BENDING MOMENT
pound feet newton meters 1.356
kilogram meters newton meters 9.807
VELOCITY
centimeters per second feet per second
feet per minute
miles per hour
kilometers per hour
meters per minute
0.03281
1.9685
0.02237
0.03600
0.60000
feet per minute centimeters per second
kilometers per hour
meters per minute
meters per second
miles per hour
0.5080
0.01829
0.30480
0.00508
0.01136
feet per second centimeters per second
kilometers per hour
meters per minute
meters per second
miles per hour
30.480
1.097
18.29
0.30480
0.6818
international knots meters per second
miles per hour
0.5144
1.1516
kilometers per hour centimeters per second
feet per second
feet per minute
international knots
meters per minute
meters per second
miles per hour
27.778
0.9113
54.68
0.53996
16.667
0.27778
0.6214
kilometers per second miles per minute 37.28
meters per minute centimeters per second
feet per minute
feet per second
kilometers per hour
miles per hour
1.6667
3.2808
0.05468
0.0600
0.03728
meters per second feet per minute
feet per second
kilometers per hour
kilometers per minute
miles per hour
miles per minute
196.8
3.281
3.600
0.0600
2.237
0.03728
miles per hour centimeters per second
feet per minute
feet per second
international knots
kilometers per hour
meters per minute
44.70
88
1.4667
0.8690
1.6093
26.82
VOLUME
acre-feet cubic feet
gallons (US)
cubic meters
43.560
325851
1233.5
barrels (US liquid) gallons (US) 31.5
barrels (oil) cubic meters
gallons of oil
cubic meters
0.11924
42
0.15899
cubic centimeters cubic inches
cubic feet
cubic yards
gallons (US)
gallons (imp)
liters
0.06102
0.000035315
0.000001308
0.0002642
0.00022
0.001
cubic feet cubic centimeters
cubic meters
cubic inches
cubic yards
gallons (US)
gallons (imp)
liters
28317
0.028317
1728
0.03704
7.4805
6.229
28.32
cubic inches cubic centimeters
cubic feet
cubic meters
cubic yards
gallons (US)
gallons (imp)
liters
16.387
0.0005787
0.000016387
0.00002143
0.004329
0.03605
0.016387
cubic meters cubic inches
cubic feet
cubic yards
gallons (US)
gallons (imp)
liters
61024
35.315
1.3080
264.17
219.97
1000
cubic yards cubic centimeters
cubic feet
cubic inches
cubic meters
gallons (US)
gallons (imp)
liters
764550
27
46.656
0.76455
201.97
168.17
764.55
fluid ounces (US) cubic inches
liters
1.8046
0.02957
gallons (imp) cubic centimeters
cubic meters
cubic feet
cubic yards
gallons (US)
liters
pounds of water at 62℉
4546.1
0.0045461
0.16054
0.005946
1.20094
4.5461
10.000
gallons (US) cubic centimeters
cubic meters
cubic inches
cubic feet
cubic yards
pints (liquid)
quarts (liquid)
gallons (imp)
liters
pounds of water at 60℉
3785.4
0.0037854
231
0.13368
0.0049515
8
4
0.8327
3.7854
8.338
liters cubic centimeters
cubic feet
cubic inches
cubic meters
cubic yards
gallons (US)
gallons (imp)
1000
0.035315
61.024
0.001
0.001308
0.26418
0.2200
pounds-mass of water at 60캟 cubic centimeters
cubic feet
cubic inches
gallons (US)
liters
454.00
0.01603
27.70
0.11993
0.45398
quarts (dry) cubic centimeters
cubic inches
cubic meters
1101.2
67.20
0.0011012
quarts (liquid) cubic centimeters
cubic inches
liters
946.35
57.75
0.94635
WATER HARDNESS
grains per gallon (imp) grams per cubic meter
kilograms per cubic meter
parts per million by weight in water
14.25
0.01425
14.25
grains per gallon (US) grams per cubic meter
kilograms per cubic meter
parts per million by weight in water
pounds per million gallons
17.118
0.017118
17.118
142.9
grains per liter grains per US gallon
parts per million by mass weight in water
pounds per cubic foot
pounds per 1000 gallons (US)
58.417
1000
0.0622427
8.3544
milligrams per liter parts per million 1.0
parts per million by mass grains per gallon (US) at 60℉
grains per gallon (imp) at 62℉
grams per cubic meter at 15℃
milligrams per liter
pounds per million gallons (US) at 60℉
0.0583
0.0700
0.9991
1.0
8.328

Metric Flow Equations
Velocity:
Where Q is the flow in cubic meters per second; A is the area of the pipe's cross-section in square meters; D is the internal diameter of the pipe in meters; d is the internal diameter of the pipe in millimeters; and q is the flow in liters per minute.
Velocity Head:
Where V is the flow velocity in meters per second; gc is the acceleration due to gravity; Q is the flow in cubic meters per second; D is the internal diameter of the pipe in meters; d is the internal diameter of the pipe in millimeters; and q is the flow in liters per minute.
Head:
Where kPa is the pressure in kilopascals, B is the pressure in bars; and sp gr is the density.
Power Required:
Where Q is the flow in cubic meters per second; q is the flow in liters per minute; B is the pressure in bars; H is the head in meters of liquid; sp gr is the density; kPa is the pressure in kilopascals; and eff is the efficiency expressed as a decimal.
Reynold's Number:
Where V is the velocity of flow in meters per second; D is the internal diameter of the pipe in meters; v is the kinematic viscosity in square meters per second; k is the kinematic viscosity in centistokes; Q is the flow in cubic meters per second; q is the flow in liters per minute; and d is the internal diameter of the pipe in millimeters.
Darcy's Friction Formula:
Where f is the friction factor; L is the length of the pipe in meters; V is the velocity of flow in meters per second; gc is the acceleration due to gravity; D is the internal diameter of the pipe in meters; Q is the flow in cubic meters per second; q is the flow in liters per minute; and d is the internal diameter of the pipe in millimeters.
Hazen & Williams Friction Formula:
Where L is the length of the pipe in meters; C is the Hazen & Williams friction factor; Q is the flow in cubic meters per second; D is the internal diameter of the pipe in meters; q is the flow in liters per minute; and d is the internal diameter of the pipe in millimeters.
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