사 PH값
ACIDS [산]
Description 명칭
Description 명칭
Hydrochloric, N 염화수소, N
0.1
Formic, 0.1N 포름산, 0.1N
2.3
Hydrochloric, 0.1N 염화수소, 0.1N
1.1
Lactic, 0.1N 유산(락트산), 0.1N
2.4
Hydrochloric, 0.01N 염화수소, 0.01N
2.0
Acetic, N 초산, N
2.4
Sulfuric, N 황산, N
0.3
Acetic, 0.1N 초산, 0.1N
2.9
Sulfuric, 0.1N 황산, 0.1N
1.2
Acetic, 0.01N 초산, 0.01N
3.4
Sulfuric, 0.01N 황산, 0.01N
2.1
Benzoic, 0.01N 안식향산, 0.01N
3.1
Orthophosphoric, 0.1N 오르토인산, 0.1N
1.5
Alum, 0.1N 명반, 0.1N
3.2
Sulfurous, 0.1N 아황산, 0.1N
1.5
Carbonic (saturated) 탄산(포화상태)
3.8
Oxalic, 0.1N 옥살산, 0.1N
1.6
Hydrogen sulfide, 0.1N 황화수소, 0.1N
4.1
Tartaric, 0.1N 타르타르산, 0.1N
2.2
Arsenious (saturated) 아비산(포화상태)
5.0
Malic, 0.1N 사과산, 0.1N
2.2
Hydrocyanic, 0.1N 시안화수소산(청산), 0.1N
5.1
Citric, 0.1N 구연산, 0.1N
2.2
Boric, 0.1N 붕산, 0.1N
5.2
BASES [염기]
Sodium hydroxide, N 가성소다, N
14.0
Ammonia, N 암모니아, N
11.5
Sodium hydroxide, 0.1N 가성소다, 0.1N
13.0
Ammonia, 0.1N 암모니아, 0.1N
11.1
Sodium hydroxide, 0.01N 가성소다, 0.01N
12.0
Ammonia, 0.01N 암모니아, 0.01N
10.6
Potassium hydroxide, N 수산화칼륨, N
14.0
Potassium, 0.01N 칼륨, 0.01N
11.0
Potassium hydroxide, 0.1N 수산화칼륨, 0.1N
13.0
Magnesia (saturated) 산화마그네슘(포화상태)
10.5
Potassium hydroxide, 0.01N 수산화칼륨, 0.01N
12.0
Sodium sesquicarbonate, 0.1N 탄산나트륨,0.1N
10.1
Sodium metasilicate, 0.1N 규산화나트륨, 0.1N
12.6
Ferrous hydroxide (saturated) 수산화제일철(포화상태)
9.5
Lime (saturated) 석회(포화상태)
12.4
Calcium carbonate (saturated) 수산화칼슘(포화상태)
9.4
Sodium triphosphate, 0.1N 삼인산나트륨, 0.1N
12.0
Borax, 0.1N 붕사, 0.1N
9.2
Sodium carbonate, 0.1N 탄산나트륨, 0.1N
11.6
Sodium bicarbonate, 0.1N 중탄산나트륨, 0.1N
8.4
BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS [생체 물질]
Blood, plasma, human 혈액, 혈장(인간) 7.3-7.5 Duodenal contents, human 십이지장액(인간) 4.8-8.2
Spinal fluid, human 척수액(인간) 7.3-7.5 Feces, human 배설물(인간) 4.6-8.4
Blood, whole, dog 혈액(개) 6.9-7.2 Urine, human 소변( 인간) 4.8-8.4
Saliva, human 타액(인간) 6.5-7.5 Milk, human 젖(인간) 6.6-7.6
Gastric contents, human 위액(인간) 1.0-3.0 Bile, human 담즙(인간) 6.8-7.0
FOODSTUFFS [식료품]
Apples 사과 2.9-3.3 Milk, bovine 우유,소과동물 6.3-6.6
Apricots 살구 3.6-4.0 Olives 올리브 3.6-3.8
Asparagus 아스파라거스 5.4-5.8 Oranges 오렌지 3.0-4.0
Bananas 바나나 4.5-4.7 Oysters 굴,진주조개 6.1-6.6
Beans 5.0-6.0 Peaches 복숭아 3.4-3.6
Beers 맥주 4.0-5.0 Pears 3.6-4.0
Blackberries 검은딸기 4.9-5.5 Peas 완두콩 5.8-6.4
Bread, white 흰빵 5.0-6.0 Pickles, sour 절임물(신맛) 3.0-3.4
Beets 사탕무 4.9-5.5 Pickles, dill 절임물(미나리과) 3.2-3.6
Butter 버터 6.1-6.4 Pimento 피멘토나무 4.6-5.2
Cabbage 양배추 5.2-5.4 Plums 서양자두 2.8-3.0
Carrots 당근 4.9-5.3 Potatoes 감자 5.6-6.0
Cheese 치즈 4.8-6.4 Pumpkin 호박 4.8-5.2
Cherries 체리 3.2-4.0 Raspberries 나무딸기 3.2-3.6
Cider 사이다 2.9-3.3 Rhubarb 대황 3.1-3.2
Corn 옥수수,곡물 6.0-6.5 Salmon 연어 6.1-6.3
Crackers 크래커 6.5-8.5 Sauerkraut 소금절인
양배추
3.4-3.6
Dates 대추야자 6.5-8.5 Shrimp 작은 새우 6.8-7.0
Eggs, fresh . 7.6-8.0 Soft drinks 청량음료 2.0-4.0
Flour, wheat . 5.5-6.5 Spinach 시금치 5.1-5.7
Gooseberries . 2.8-3.0 Squash 과즙음료 5.0-5.4
Grapefruit . 3.0-3.3 Strawberries 딸기 3.0-3.5
Grapes . 3.5-4.5 Sweet potatoes 고구마 5.3-5.6
Hominy (lye) 굵게 간 옥수수 6.8-8.0 Tomatoes 토마토 4.0-4.4
Jams, fruit 과일 잼 3.5-4.0 Tuna 참치 5.9-6.1
Jellies, fruit 과일 제리 2.8-3.4 Turnips 순무 5.2-5.6
Lemons 레몬 2.2-2.4 Vinegar 식초 2.4-3.4
Limes 라임 1.8-2.0 Water, drinking 6.5-8.0
Maple syrup 단풍당밀 6.5-7.0 Wines 과실주 2.8-3.8

유체의 분류

모든유체는 뉴톤 또는 비뉴톤 유체로 분류되어질 수 있다. 차이는 유체의 Tangential Stress
(단위 표면에 대한 층[고정표면 이동표면간 마찰력 )와 Rate of Shear(층간의 속도차를 층간 거리로 나눔)와의
관계이다.
만약 직선이고 유체는 속도변화가" 0 "에서 압력(Stress)이"0"로 이것이 뉴톤유체이다.
그것이 아니면 비뉴톤 유체이고 그들의 속도 변화에 대한 Stress Curve을 토대로 각각 세분화중의 하나로
먼저 분류되었다.

Diagram of Fluid Equations

비뉴톤 유체에 대하여, 속도변화는 점도에 종속한다; 그것은 유체가 그것의 속도에 대한 더높거나 더낮은
Stress를 갖는다. 이들 특성을 토대로 유체는 세분화 되어질 수 있다.

Graph of Fluid Classifications

NEWTONIAN [뉴톤 유체]

대부분의 소금물
염료의 경부유물
고령토(슬러리함유)
고점도연료
가솔린
등유
대부분의 모터오일
대부분의 광유
Graph of Newtonian Fluids
NON-NEWTONIAN [비뉴톤 유체]
YIELD PSEUDOPLASTIC, BINGHAM
PLASTIC, YIELD DILATANT
고령토 (clay)
진흙 (Mud)
타르 (Tar)
오폐수 슬러지
분뇨
고농축 불연성오일
열가소성폴리머솔루션
Graph of Yield Pseudoplastic, Bingham Plastic, and Yield Dilatant Fluids
PSEUDOPLASTIC
오폐수 슬러지
Paper pulp(종이분액)
Grease
Soap
Paint
Printer's ink
전분,녹말 (Starch)
유액,천연고무액(Latex solutions)
유상액,감광액제(Most emulsions)
Graph of Pseudoplastic Fluids
DILATANT
장석(Feldspar)
운모(Mica)
고령토(Clay)
해사(Beach sand)
유사,표사(Quicksand)
전분액(Starch in water)
Graph of Dilatant Fluids
THIXOTROPIC - RHEOPECTIC
잉크
대부분의 페인트
Carboxymethyl cellulose
Silica gel
Greases
Asphalt
Starch
Bentonite
석고수용액(Gypsum solutions in water
)

Thixotropic - decreases viscosity over time
Rheopectic - increases viscosity over time

Graph of Thixotropic/Rheopectic Fluids

양정과 압력의 비교
Equivalents of Head and Pressure
(in. and feet of water at 68˚F, in. and feet mercury at 32˚F)
  lb/in2 lb/ft2 Atm. kg/cm2 kg/m2 in.
water
ft.
water
in.
mmHg
mm
mmHg
Bars MPa
lb/in2 1 144 0.068046 0.070307 703.070 27.7276 2.3106 2.03602 51.7150 0.06895 0.006895
lb/ft2 0.006944 1 0.000473 0.000488 4088241 0.1926 0.01605 0.01414 0.35913 0.00048 0.000048
Atm. 14.696 2116.22 1 1.0332 10332.3 407.484 33.9570 29.921 760 1.01325 0.101325
kg/cm2 14.2233 2048.16 0.96784 1 10000 394.38 32.8650 28.959 735.559 0.98067 0.098067
kg/m2 0.001422 0.20477 0.000097 0.0001 1 0.03944 0.003287 0.0029 0.07356 0.00010 0.000010
in.
water
0.036092 5.1972 0.002454 0.00253 25.375 1 0.08333 0.07343 1.8651 0.00249 0.000249
ft.
water
0.432781 62.3205 0.029449 0.03043 304.275 12 1 0.88155 22.3813 0.02984 0.002984
in.
mmHg
0.491154 70.7262 0.033421 0.03453 345.316 13.6185 1.1349 1 25.4001 0.03386 0.003386
mm
mmHg
0.019337 2.78450 0.001316 0.00136 13.5951 0.53616 0.044680 0.03937 1 0.00133 0.000133
Bars 14.5038 2088.55 0.98692 1.01972 10197.2 402.156 33.5130 29.5300 750.062 1 0.10
MPa 145.038 20885.5 9.8692 10.1972 101972 4021.56 335.130 295.300 7500.62 10.0 1

유량 비교
Flow Equivalents for any Liquid
  US
gpm
Imp
gpm
US
million
gal/day
sec-ft m3/hr liters/sec barrels/min barrels/day
US gpm 1 0.8327 0.00144 0.00223 0.2271 0.0631 0.0238 34.286
Imp gpm 1.201 1 0.00173 0.002676 0.2727 0.0758 0.02859 41.176
US million gal/day 694.4 578.25 1 1.547 157.7 43.8 16.53 23810
sec-ft 448.83 373.7 0.646 1 101.9 28.32 10.686 15388
m3/hr 4.403 3.67 0.00634 0.00982 1 0.2778 0.1048 151
liters/sec 15.85 13.20 0.0228 0.0353 3.60 1 0.3773 543.3
barrels/min 42 34.97 0.0605 0.0937 9.538 2.65 1 1440
barrels/day 0.0292 0.0243 0.000042 0.000065 0.00662 0.00184 0.00069 1

체적과 무게 비교
Volume and Weight Equivalents
Weight Equivalent Basis Water at 60℉ (15.6℃)
  US
Gallons
Imp
Gallons
in3 ft3 Liters Meters3 Pounds US
Tons
Kg
US
Gallons
1 0.8327 231 0.13368 3.7854 0.0037854 8.338 0.00417 3.782
Imp
Gallons
1.20094 1 277.39 0.16054 4.546 0.004546 10.0134 0.005 4.542
in3 0.004329 0.003605 1 0.0005787 0.016387 0.000016387 0.036095 55409 0.016372
ft3 7.48052 6.229 1728 1 28.317 0.02832 62.3714 0.03119 28.291
Liters 0.2642 0.2200 61.024 0.035315 1 0.001 2.2029 0.0011 0.1000
Meters3 264.2 220.0 61024 35.315 1000 1 2202.65 1.10133 1000
Pounds 0.1199 0.09987 27.71 0.016033 0.4539 0.000454 1 0.0005 0.45359
US
Tons
239.87 199.7 55409 32.066 907.9 0.908 2000 1 907.2
Kg 0.2644 0.2202 61.08 0.03534 1 0.001 2.205 0.0011 1


Properties of Common Liquids
At 68℉ and 14.7 psia
Liquid Density (lb/ft3) Bulk Modulus Acoustic Velocity
Pure Water 62.3 318(s) 4865
Seawater 63.9 344(s) 4993
Benzene 54.8 222(s) 4324
Methanol 49.3 144(s) 3678
Ethanol 49.3 155(s) 3812
Turpentine 54.2 223(s) 4363
At 68℉ and 200 psia
Propane 30.8 25 (t) 2000-2500
Isobutane 35.0 41(t) 2200-2800
N-butane 35.8 53(t) 3100-3700

 

Physical Properties of Gases

(Approximate Values Calculated at 68℉ and 147 psia)

cp = specific heat at constant pressure
cv = specific heat at constant volume 

Name of Gas Chemical Formula or Symbol Approx. Molecular Weight
M
Weight Density, Pounds per Cubic Foot
p
Specific Gravity Relative to Air
Sg
Individual Gas Constant
R
Specific Heat at Room Temperature Btu/Lb ℉ Heat Capacity per Cubic Foot k
equal to
cp/cv
cp cv cp cv
Acetylene (ethyne) C2H2 26.0 .0682 0.907 59.4 0.350 0.269 .0239 .0184 1.30
Air -- 29.0 .0752 1.000 53.3 0.241 0.172 .0181 .0129 1.40
Ammonia H3N 17.0 .0448 .0596 91.0 0.523 0.396 .0234 .0178 1.32
Argon Ar 39.9 .1037 1.379 38.7 0.124 0.074 .0129 .0077 1.67
Butane C4H10 58.1 .1554 2.067 26.5 0.395 0.356 .0614 .0553 1.11
Carbon dioxide CO2 44.0 .1150 1.529 35.1 0.205 0.158 .0236 .0181 1.30
Carbon monoxide CO 28.0 .0727 0.967 55.2 0.243 0.173 .0177 .0126 1.40
Chlorine Cl 70.9 .1869 2.486 21.8 0.115 0.086 .0215 .0162 1.33
Ethane C2H6 30.0 .0789 1.049 51.5 0.386 0.316 .0305 .0250 1.22
Ethylene C2H4 28.0 .0733 0.975 55.1 0.400 0.329 .0293 .0240 1.22
Helium He 4.0 .01039 0.1381 386.3 1.250 0.754 .0130 .0078 1.66
Hydrogen chloride HCl 36.5 .0954 1.268 42.4 0.191 0.135 .0182 .0129 1.41
Hydrogen H 2.0 .00523 0.0695 766.8 3.420 2.426 .0179 .0127 1.41
Hydrogen sulphide H2S 34.1 .0895 1.190 45.2 0.243 0.187 .0217 .0167 1.30
Methane CH4 16.0 .0417 0.554 96.4 0.593 0.449 .0247 .0187 1.32
Methyl chloride CH3Cl 50.5 .1342 1.785 30.6 0.240 0.200 .0322 .0268 1.20

Natural gas

-- 19.5 .0502 0.667 79.1 0.560 0.441 .0281 .0221 1.27
Nitric oxide NO 30.0 .0780 1.037 51.5 0.231 0.165 .0180 .0129 1.40

Nitrogen

N 28.0 .0727 0.967 55.2 0.247 0.176 .0180 .0127 1.41

Nitrous oxide

N2O 44.0 .1151 1.530 35.1 0.221 0.169 .0254 .0194 1.31
Oxygen O 32.0 .0831 1.105 48.3 0.217 0.155 .0180 .0129 1.40
Propane C3H8 44.1 .1175 1.562 35.0 0.393 0.342 .0462 .0402 1.15
Propene (propylene) C3H6 42.1 .1091 1.451 36.8 0.358 0.314 .0391 .0343 1.14
Sulphur dioxide SO2 64.1 .1703 2.264 24.0 0.154 0.122 .0262 .0208 1.26

Note: Values for natural gas and air are representative only. Exact characteristics require knowledge of specific constituents.

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